"It's when you want someone to stop doing something so you do something negative so they'll stop. Like yelling at them or grounding them or insulting them."
That is actually the EXACT OPPOSITE of Negative Reinforcement. That example is actually : Positive Punishment.
Let me explain. (no there is too much, let me sum up):
POSITIVE: Do Something or Give Something
NEGATIVE: Stop Doing Something or Take Something Away
REINFORCEMENT: Increases a behavior
PUNISHMENT: Decreases a behavior
EXAMPLE: You want your kid to take out the trash
When they take out the trash, you praise them or give them a reward, and then they take it out more often
When they take out the trash, you stop nagging them, and then they take it out more often
Your kid refuses to take out the trash, you spank them, they stop refusing.
OR your kid refuses to take out the trash, you give them $5, they stop refusing.
Your kid refuses to take out the trash, you stop giving them allowance, they stop refusing.
The important thing to remember is that NONE OF THESE TERMS refer to moral judgments or preferences.
Punishment, by definition, decreases a behavior. It could be very enjoyable and nice, if it decreases the behavior it is a punishment. You could give someone ice cream, and if it stopped them from cussing you out, then it is by definition a punishment of cussing. (if it made them cuss you out more so they'd get ice cream then it became reinforcing...oops)
Positive means "you do something" so spanking and cussing out your kids is in this sense "positive" because are DOING something.
Negative means "take something away or stop doing something." It doesn't mean it's aversive or unpleasant
THIS is positive punishment:
ie: Sunscreen works through negative reinforcement. When you put on sunscreen, you decrease or take away a sunburn, and then sunscreen is put on more often. The behavior is done more often, because something was taken away.
Parents often think that if something is unpleasant it is a punishment. Well, if your kid is smoking marijuana and coming home late, and you take away their cell phone - then they smoke more and come home late more often - THEN you have reinforced them.
You used NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT. You took something away, and it increased the behavior (smoking and staying out late).
If they were smoking and coming home late and you took them to a minor league baseball game and spent more time with them, and they stopped smoking and staying out late, THEN you have POSITIVELY PUNISHED them. You did something, and the behavior decreased.
Clear as mud?